Carbon dating translate
In June 2000 a compromise was announced which saved face for the government and secured the uninterrupted operation of the nuclear plants for many years ahead.The agreement, while limiting plant lifetime to some degree, averted the risk of any federally-enforced plant closures during the term of that government.These comprised four operating VVER-440s, a fifth one under construction and a small older VVER reactor. ON’s “power generation in and outside Europe and global energy trading,” but “E.In 2000 the European Commission approved the merger of two of Germany's biggest utilities, Veba and Viag, to form E. ON has equity in the following nuclear plants which from January 2016 are managed by its subsidiary Preussen Elektra: Gundremmingen B&C 25%, Grohnde 83.3%, Brokdorf 80%, Isar 2 75%, Emsland 12.5%. ON will retain responsibility for the remaining operation and dismantling of its nuclear generating capacity in Germany and not transfer it to Uniper” as originally envisaged.In 2014 wind and solar PV had capacity factors of 17% and 11% respectively, compared with 92% for nuclear (IEA figures).In 2011 Russia provided almost 40% of the gas, followed by Norway, Netherlands and the UK, while 14% was produced domestically.Long drawn-out "consensus talks" with the electric utilities were intended to establish a timetable for phase out, with the Greens threatening unilateral curtailment of licences without compensation if agreement was not reached.
Earlier in the year this comprised: 28.2 GWe gas, 21.2 GWe lignite, 26.3 GWe hard coal and 5.6 GWe biomass, according to the Fraunhofer Institute.Six units are boiling water reactors (BWR), 11 are pressurised water reactors (PWR). A further PWR had not operated since 1988 because of a licensing dispute.This picture changed in 2011, with the operating fleet being reduced to nine reactors with 12,003 MWe capacity, and then to eight reactors with 10,728 MWe.(See later sections.) Responsibility for licensing the construction and operation of all nuclear facilities is shared between the federal and Länder governments, which confers something close to a power of veto to both.When Germany was reunited in 1990, all the Soviet-designed reactors in the east were shut down for safety reasons and are being decommissioned.
ON, which owned or had a stake in 12 of the country's 19 nuclear reactors which were operating then. ON spun off Uniper, which was to take over all its nuclear assets in 2016, but in the event left German nuclear plants with E. Uniper includes stakes in Swedish nuclear plants.) RWE has equity in the following nuclear plants: Gundremmingen 75%, Emsland 87.5%.