Radioactive carbon dating demonstration
This in turn helps in interpreting the mode of formation and the depositional environment of sedimentary rocks.Thus the discipline of geomorphology is fundamental to the uniformitarian approach to the Earth sciences according to which the present is the key to the past.As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology.Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology.The geologic time scale, back to the oldest rocks, some 4,280,000,000 years ago, can be quantified by isotopic dating techniques.
Seismology, for example, involves the exploration of the Earth’s deep structure through the detailed analysis of recordings of elastic waves generated by earthquakes and man-made explosions.
Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives.
Limestones, which are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite.
Paleontological research of the fossil record since the Cambrian Period has contributed much to the theory of evolution of life on Earth.
Several disciplines of the geologic sciences have practical benefits for society.
Paleontology is the study of fossils and is concerned not only with their description and classification but also with an analysis of the evolution of the organisms involved.